He added five movements from his Weimarer Passion, with three texts now thought to be by Christoph Birkmann. [citation needed], The arias, set to texts by Picander, are interspersed between sections of the Gospel text. The work displays a thoughtful symmetry. 3–479, Autograph score in the Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin), International Music Score Library Project, Translation to many languages, commentary, musical examples, list of recordings, The Passion according to Saint Matthew BWV 244, Masses, magnificat, passions and oratorios, List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=St_Matthew_Passion&oldid=998536685, Passions and oratorios by Johann Sebastian Bach, Articles needing additional references from April 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It is there (No. Their first performance was effectively publicized in six consecutive issues of the Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, founded and edited by Adolf Bernhard Marx. The fourth chorale, movement 14, ends the second scene and Part I. I found your Website because of the enthusiastic comments of Robert Murphy who will be participating in the Bach Festival 2000 St. Matthew Passion chorus. Because Bach never intended the St. Matthew Passion to be "easy listening". [20], In the 1727/1729 version without music and text "Es dient zu meinem Freude", Recitative (with Chorus II: Was ist die Ursach aller solcher Plagen?) Rifkin, Joshua (1982). This is the version (with some possible later adjustments) that is generally known as the St Matthew Passion, BWV 244. 1, Chorus I/II: "Kommt, Ihr Töchter, Helft Mir Klagen"", "St. Matthew The available information derives from extant early manuscripts, contemporary publications of the libretto, and circumstantial data, for instance in documents archived by the Town Council of Leipzig. On the way to the crucifixion site (No. [16] In personal reflection, the speaker sees the contrast of his pleasure in the world and the suffering of Jesus, ending in a short "Und du mußt leiden" (And you must suffer). "Christus, der uns selig macht" (Christ, who has made us blessed),[8] stanza 1 of Michael Weiße's 1531 hymn, summarizes what Jesus has to endure, even though he is innocent ("made captive, ... falsely indicted, and mocked and scorned and bespat"). "In meines Herzens Grunde" (Within my heart's foundation)[8] is stanza 3 of Valerius Herberger's 1613 hymn "Valet will ich dir geben". Chorale: first stanza of Johann Heermann's "Herzliebster Jesu". Bach led the first performance on 7 April 1724 in Leipzig's Nikolaikirche. The bass aria No. 41) Jesus is sent to Pontius Pilate while Judas is overcome by remorse and kills himself. [8][21], The seventh chorale, movement 22, is the central movement of the whole Passion, which interrupts the conversation of Pilate and the crowd by a general statement of the importance of the passion for salvation: "Durch dein Gefängnis, Gottes Sohn, ist uns die Freiheit kommen" (Through your prison, Son of God, must come to us our freedom)[8][22] is not part of a known hymn, but the text of an aria from a St John Passion by Postel from around 1700. Bach came from a family of prominent musicians. One is the double-choir format, which stems from his own double-choir motets and those of many other composers with which he routinely started Sunday services. Stream songs including "St. Matthew Passion, for chorus". In this version the Passion was written for two choruses and orchestras. In "Blute nur", the line about the serpent is set with a twisting melody. The central chorale is not part of a common hymn, its text being taken from a libretto by Christian Heinrich Postel. — seht die Geduld (See it! A Visitor's Guide To Bach's 'St. [5], Klagt, Kinder, klagt es aller Welt, BWV 244a, a cantata of which only the text is extant, was performed 24 March 1729 in Köthen at a memorial service held some months after the death of Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen. In version 3, after Bach wrote his St Matthew Passion, he returned the opening chorus Herr, unser Herrscher and the final chorus Ruht wohl to their initial position, but removed the Gospel passages from Matthew and the closing chorale. Typically, these are done with all performers in street clothes or neutral costumes, the orchestras on stage, at least the soloists singing without scores from memory, and the words acted out in a solemn, melodramatic fashion with only a minimal stage set. [8][clarification needed], The second chorale, movement 5, ends the first scene, after Jesus remarks that he has to be obedient. Bach", "Johann Sebastian Bach / Johannespassion", "Literary Origins of Bach's St. John Passion: 1704–1717", "Die Johannes-Passion von Johann Sebastian Bach", "BWV 245 – Passio secundum Johanneum / St. John Passion", Masses, magnificat, passions and oratorios, List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=St_John_Passion_structure&oldid=1000668645, Passions and oratorios by Johann Sebastian Bach, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2017, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Articles with dead external links from May 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The original Latin title Passio Domini nostri J.C. secundum Evangelistam Matthæum translates to "The Passion of our Lord J[esus] C[hrist] according to the Evangelist Matthew".[1]. ("Rest gently, gently rest! Choir II consists of SATB voices, violin I, violin II, viola, viola da gamba, cello, two traversos, two oboes (d'amore) and possibly continuo. In the middle of the hearing, a chorale (22) interrupts the argument, which is a discussion about freedom and captivity. ), followed by the question Wie? 2), on the other hand the intention to get rid of him is expressed (No. Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen – O Lamm Gottes unschuldig (Chorus I & II – Cantus firmus by ripieno soprano choir), 29. This is notable in "O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß", the conclusion of the first half – a movement which Bach also used as an opening chorus for the second version (1725) of his St John Passion (later – ca. The request was only partially granted by the Town Council,[7] so possibly at least some of the Passion presentations in St. Thomas were with fewer than twenty singers, even for the large scale works, like the St Matthew Passion, that were written for double choir. The sense of gigantic undulation is … The first "O Lamm Gottes" chorale compares Jesus' crucifixion to the ritual sacrifice of an Old Testament lamb, as an offering for sin. The chorale melody soars above the sorrowful questions and … However, though he had stopped at measure 42 of Movement 10, he continued to work on this revision, as shown by the copyists' score and parts. Sterndale Bennett 1845 edition of the Passion was to be the first of many (as Adolph Bernhard Marx and Adolf Martin Schlesinger's one in 1830), the latest being by Neil Jenkins (1997) and Nicholas Fisher and John Russell (2008). 63c) Joseph of Arimathea asks Pilate for the corpse for burial. While soprano and alto mourn (in duet, No. The following day (No. [8][23][24], The seventh chorale, movement 26, ends the scene of the court hearing, after Pilate refuses to change the inscription. "[14] In 1749, Bach performed the St John Passion once more, in an expanded and altered form from the 1724 version, in what would be his last performance of a Passion. The work is divided into two parts to be performed before and after the sermon of the Good Friday service. (Wreck, ruin, engulf, shatter with sudden force the false betrayer, the murderous blood!). [8] Bach took this movement from his cantata Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, BWV 23, which had been an audition piece for his post in Leipzig. For practical reasons the continuo organ is often shared and played with both orchestras. Two stanzas from Paul Gerhardt's 1647 hymn "O Welt, sieh hier dein Leben" comment the scene, stanza 3, "Wer hat dich so geschlagen" (Who has you now so stricken),[8] and stanza 4, "Ich, ich und meine Sünden" (I, I and my transgressions),[8][18] highlighting the personal responsibility of the speaking sinner for the suffering of Jesus. O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß ", a 1725 replacement for the opening chorus, found a new home in … This is listed as BC D 2c. – meaning: Am I the one going to betray? 49, "Aus Liebe will mein Heiland sterben", where the absence of strings and basso continuo mark a desperate loss of security. In this version both choirs have SATB soloists and chorus, and a string section and continuo consisting of at least violins I and II, viola, gamba and organ. This was performed in 1724. Slight change in voice-leading and other details. (My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Bach St Matthew Passion: Text, Translation and Musical Notes On the occasion of the centenary of the first performance of the St Matthew Passion in Aberdeen in 1912, Peter Parfitt, … Stream songs including "St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244: No. 26) that he is betrayed by Judas' kiss and arrested. Appreciation, performance and study of Bach's composition have persisted into the present era. "[26], In 1827, Felix and a few friends began weekly sessions to rehearse the Passion. Listen to Schütz: St. Matthew Passion by Dieter Kurz & Stuttgart Opera Choir on Apple Music. a maximum of what could be fitted in the organ lofts. ), he is supposed to have called Elijah. All choral sections and instrumental ritornellos now include a. [4] The performance took place in the St. Thomas Church (Thomaskirche) in Leipzig. "Dein Will gescheh, Herr Gott, zugleich" (Your will be done, Lord God, alike)[8] is stanza 4 of Luther's 1539 hymn "Vater unser im Himmelreich,[8] a paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer.[17]. "[30] In the following, the movement numbers are those of the NBA, version I, unless otherwise noted. a soprano voice sings the words spoken by Pontius Pilate's wife), except for: Apart from the Evangelist and the Vox Christi the dramatis personae of these Gospel sections of the St Matthew Passion consists of: In between the sections or scenes of the Gospel text, other texts are sung as a meditation or underlining the action, in a variety of formats: In the scheme below indentation indicates the type of movement: 1. He was, by now, working as a … 29, concluding Part One, is a four-part setting of the chorale "Jesum lass ich nicht von mir" instead of the chorale fantasia on "O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß".[5]. [11] Wolff concludes: "the work accompanied Bach right from his first year as Kantor of St Thomas's to the penultimate year of his life and thus, for that reason alone, how close it must have been to his heart.[15]. [8][20], The sixth chorale, movement 17, comments in two more stanzas from "Herzliebster Jesu" (3), after Jesus addresses the different people of his kingdom. Pilate interrogates Jesus (No. After Peter's denial, "Petrus, der nicht denkt zurück" (Peter, when he fails to think)[8] summarizes the scene with stanza 10 of Paul Stockmann's 1633 hymn "Jesu Leiden, Pein und Tod". All sentences of the first stanza of Decius' hymn are used as cantus firmus throughout the movement by the ripienists. The work is scored for vocal soloists (soprano, alto, tenor and bass), a four-part choir SATB, and an orchestra of two flauto traverso (Ft) (except for Version I, since all evidence of Bach's use of traverse flutes point to the 2nd Cantata Cycle as when he first used them), two oboes (Ob), two oboes da caccia (Oc), two oboes d'amore (Oa), two violins, viola (Va), and basso continuo. On the other hand, George Balanchine staged it in 1943 with Stokowski conducting, and the Hamburg Ballet presented a Saint Matthew Passion under John Neumeier with Peter Schreier in 1981. Notable staged performances include Jonathan Miller's 1997 production in English. The Evangelist, a tenor voice, sings the Gospel text in a declamatory style called secco recitative, that is, with only a continuo accompaniment. [8][28], The eleventh chorale, movement 40, ends the Passion. Part I was performed before the sermon, Part II after the sermon. The first two lines of the hymn are a rhetorical question: "My dearest Jesus, which crimes have you committed, that such dire judgement has been passed? Bach wanted to … In the 1727/1729 version, this part is concluded by a four-part setting of verse 6 of the Chorale "Meinen Jesum laß ich nicht (Jesum laß ich nicht von mir)". 7) has Judas Iscariot negotiating the price for handing Jesus over. Bach used the hymns in different ways, most are four-part setting, two as the cantus firmus of the two chorale fantasias framing Part I, one as a commenting element in a tenor recitative. The chorus alternates between participating in the narrative and commenting on it. Listen to Bach: St. Matthew Passion, Vol. 27b) furiously demands against the Jews who arrested Jesus "Zertrümmre, verderbe, verschlinge, zerschelle/ Mit plötzlicher Wut/Den falschen Verräter, das mördrische Blut!" 4). In the morning (No. One chorale accompanies the bass soloist in an aria (32). (My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? These are the last words (before the recapitulation), marked by Bach himself: p pp ppp (soft, very soft, extremely soft). When J. S. Bach came to write his St. Matthew Passion in the 1720s, the Passion, as a musical form, had grown to allow orchestra, choirs, and non-scriptural choruses and arias. [12] Other versions were performed between 1728 and 1732 (version 3),[10] and in 1749 (version 4). The Bach Compendium lists it as BC D 2a. The St Matthew Passion is set for two choirs and two orchestras. and Chorus II promptly asks Wen? Preceding this, Jesus is greeted in mockery as a king, corresponding in motif to the later request that Pilate should change the inscription saying he is "the King of the Jews" to "He said: I am the King of the Jews".[9]. [6], At the time only men sang in church: high pitch vocal parts were usually performed by treble choristers. 66) officials remind Pilate of the talk of resurrection and ask for guards and a seal for the grave to prevent fraud. Part I covers the events until Peter's denial of Jesus, Part II concludes with the burial of Jesus. Now 12c ends in Measure 31 and Movement 33 is eliminated altogether (replaced by a lost Sinfonia). This is listed as BC 2b. 37) where two witnesses report Jesus having spoken about destroying the Temple and building it again in three days. In response, Bach performed the Brockes-Passion of his friend, Georg Philipp Telemann (TVWV 5:1). ", In the arias, obbligato instruments are equal partners with the voices, as was customary in late Baroque arias. Voice-leading and instrumental notation and Continuo part altered. He dies. [19][8], The fifth chorale, movement 15, opens Part II and the third scene. Before, it had been part of his Weimarer Passion of 1717. Bach worked together with his librettist, Christian Friedrich Henrici, known as Picander[4] who published the text of the libretto of the St Matthew Passion in 1729. (Lord, is it I?) He also dispensed with the Lute and the Viola d'amore, replacing them with an Organ and Violini con sordino. ", "St Matthew Passion – German to English translation in interlinear format", "Fünftes Buch: Leipziger Jahre von 1723–1734" pp. The first chorale, movement 3, is inserted after Jesus tells the crowd to arrest him, but let his disciples go. [15] The opening chorus, "Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen" is also notable for the use of chorale cantus firmus, in which the soprano in ripieno crowns a colossal buildup of polyphonic and harmonic tension, singing a verse of "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig". In the center of the five parts is the court hearing which confronts Jesus, Pilate, and the people. In 1725 Christian Friedrich Henrici, a Leipzig poet who used Picander as his pen name, had published Erbauliche Gedanken auf den Grünen Donnerstag und Charfreytag ("Edifying Thoughts on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday"), containing free verse suitable for a Passion presentation in addition to the Gospel text. For this version (of 1725), in addition to the Flute parts (which were first used in late 1724 (after 1. Luke". by Chorus II, to which Chorus I answers als wie ein Lamm (just like a lamb – another reference to Christ). The oldest chorale Bach used in the St Matthew Passion dates from 1525. Two distinctive aspects of Bach's setting spring from his other church endeavors. [3] Others, including Alfred Dürr, regard the scene as ending with the last comment by Pilate. After 16 measures of instrumental introduction in 128 time, driven by an ostinato rhythm in the basses, Chorus I intones Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen, until in measure 26 they sing Sehet (Hark!) The narrator is the Evangelist, a tenor. 18) Jesus asks his followers several times to support him but they fall asleep while he is praying in agony. Helen Johnston (a student at Queen's College, London) translated the libretto of the Passion, and Bennett conducted the first English performance at the Hanover Square Rooms London on 6 April 1854 (the same year that it appeared in print by the Old Bach Society (Alte Bach-Gesellschaft). A small group is represented by Chorus I or Chorus II separately (Chorus I always for the disciples); High priests and larger groups of people are sung by Chorus I and II together. In this version, Bach reverted to the original layout (thus discarding the previous revisions and additions). These are not always sung by all different soloists. A number of passages for several speakers, called turba (crowd) parts, are sung by one of the two choirs or both. In the St Matthew Passion there are three such extended choral movements: the opening chorus ("Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen", text by Picander and. 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[ 31 ] [ 4 ] the 20-year-old Felix conducted... That was the option chosen by Bach for his 1724 St John Passion service, instruments... Laßt ihn, haltet, bindet nicht! ) has Judas Iscariot Thomaskantor ( i.e.,,... Reverted to the `` sweet cross '' expresses in No appears to be by Christoph Birkmann texts. Flute parts for this version, this undertaking was not allowed to paraphrase the words of the Passion, performed. Citation needed ], the eleventh chorale, movement 3, is inserted after asks. ) Peter is told three times that he belongs to Jesus and others. Jesus having spoken about destroying the Temple and building it again between 1743 and 1746 the Felix! Gospel of Matthew version ( with Some possible later adjustments ) that receive sustained! Als wie ein Lamm ( just like a lamb – another reference to Christ ) maximum of what could fitted... The oratorio style has one flat ( D major ), after which Chorus I & II.. 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