"[5], Even James Wilford Garner's Reconstruction in Mississippi, regarded by W. E. B. At the present day, in the same states, the negroes enjoy practically no political rights; the Republican party is but the shadow of a name; and the influence of the negroes in political affairs is nil. Muller, Philip R. "Look Back Without Anger: A Reappraisal of William A. Dunning". The third period has had for its task the termination of equal rights in law as well as in fact. There was still one contingency that the whites had to face in carrying out the new policy. As a result, the audience at the circus was notable in respect to numbers, but the negro vote at the election was insignificant. The Dunning School refers to a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history (1865–1877), supporting conservative elements against the Radical Republicans who introduced civil rights in the South. Edited by John David Smith and J. Vincent Lowery. 1.) While these were at their height the Republican party was ousted from control in five of the old rebel states,—Tennessee, North Carolina, Texas, Georgia, and Virginia. In the South it met with practically unanimous approval among thoughtful and conscientious men, who had been distressed by the false position in which they had long been placed. This interpretation of Reconstruction placed it firmly in the category of historical blunder. The decline of negro suffrage and of the Republican party in the South was the topic of much discussion in national politics and figured in the party platforms throughout the period from 1876 to 1888; but owing to the deadlock in the party control of the national legislature the discussion remained academic in character, and the issue was supplanted in public interest by the questions of tariff, currency, and monopoly. There was relatively little “Ku-Kluxing” or open violence, but in countless ways the negroes were impressed with the idea that there would be peril for them in voting. He contended that freedmen had proved incapable of self-government and thus had made segregation necessary. Save for a few judicial positions held over from early appointments, the national offices, like those of the states, were hopelessly removed from the reach of any Republican's ambition. Yet, with all that could be done in this way, the fact remained that in many localities the negroes so greatly outnumbered the whites as to render the political ascendency of the latter impossible, except through some radical changes in the laws touching the suffrage and the elections; and in respect to these two points the sensitiveness of Northern feeling rendered open and decided action highly inexpedient. For Howard K. Beale, assessing Reconstruction historiography in 1940, the unquestioning use of the words “ carpetbaggers ” and “ scalawags, ” for example, demonstrated that historians as a whole had accepted the biased writing of Reconstruction history embodied by the Dunning school, and that the new revisionists had not yet become “ classics ” in the way their predecessors had. The battle over the memory of Reconstruction has in many ways mirrored the political, social, and economic struggles of each subsequent era of American history. "Was the Grant of Black Suffrage a Political Error? Between 1872 and 1876 the Republican party split in each of the states in which it still retained control, and the fusion of one faction with the Democrats gave rise to disputed elections, general disorder, and appeals by the radical Republicans to the President for aid in suppressing domestic violence. It was an explanation for and justification of taking the right to vote away from black people on the grounds that they completely abused it during Reconstruction. Adam Fairclough, a British historian whose expertise includes Reconstruction, summarized the Dunningite themes: All agreed that black suffrage had been a political blunder and that the Republican state governments in the South that rested upon black votes had been corrupt, extravagant, unrepresentative, and oppressive. The Republicans insisted that these officials and troops were essential to enable the negroes to vote and to have their votes counted. Dunning’s interpretation of reconstruction differs from Foner’s interpretation by the Dunning school believing reconstruction was always going to fail and felt that taking the right to vote or hold office away from the whites in the south was a violation of republicanism. 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